Rice is one of the majorly consumed staples in the world, especially in South East Asia. Rice is consumed by approximately 70% of the Indian population, according to a report released by the international NGO – Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). Fortified Rice Kernels (FRKs) are normally added to normal rice in a ratio of 1:99 to make fortified rice that adds to the nutritional value of rice.
Fortification of rice can be done by the following methods, according to GAIN:
- Hot Extrusion: The rice can be fortified by the extrusion process, which involves combining the rice flour, micronutrient premixes and water and then the product is extruded in the form of rice kernels. The process involves subjecting the product to heat i.e. 70°C -110°C, hence the product is precooked
- Cold Extrusion: This process is like hot extrusion, but there is no heat processing and rice flour is replaced by rice dough, which is combined with the micronutrient premix. The mixture is then extruded in the form of rice like kernels. This type of fortified rice is not precooked
- Coating: In this technique, the micronutrient premixes are combined with ingredients like gum and waxes, which is later sprayed on the rice.
- Dusting: This method involves dusting of the rice grains with the micronutrient premixes, which binds with the rice grains due to electrostatic force.
- Although other techniques like Coating and Dusting exist, Hot Air Extrusion is the most preferred method of fortification.
Vitamins: Vitamins B9 and B12
Disclaimer: Micronutrient premixes formulated and added for Staple Food Fortification are governed by FSSAI. Above staple food processing application products are as per Food Safety Standards Authority of India regulations on Staple Food Fortification dated 3rd August 2018 Gazette number F. No. 11/03/Reg/Fortification/2014